Perfusion Imaging and Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke with Large Core.
Source: Ann Neurol
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is not recommended for acute stroke with large vessel occlusion (LVO) and a large volume of irreversibly injured tissue ("core"). Perfusion imaging may identify a subset of patients with large core who benefit from MT. | METHODS: We compared two cohorts of LVO-related patients with large core (>50 ml on diffusion-weighted-imaging or CT-perfusion using RAPID), available perfusion imaging, and treated within 6 hours from onset by either MT + Best Medical Management (BMM) in one prospective study, or BMM alone in the pre-MT era from a prospective registry. Primary outcome was 90-day modified Rankin Scale ≤2. We searched for an interaction between treatment group and amount of penumbra as estimated by the mismatch ratio (MMRatio = critical hypoperfusion/core volume). | RESULTS: Overall, 107 patients were included (56 MT + BMM and 51 BMM): Mean age was 68 ± 15 years, median core volume 99 ml (IQR: 72-131) and MMRatio 1.4 (IQR: 1.0-1.9). Baseline clinical and radiological variables were similar between the two groups, except for a higher intravenous thrombolysis rate in the BMM group. The MMRatio strongly modified the clinical outcome following MT (pinteraction < 0.001 for continuous MMRatio); MT was associated with a higher rate of good outcome in patients with, but not in those without, MMRatio>1.2 (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 6.8 [1.7-27.0] vs 0.7 [0.1-6.2], respectively). Similar findings were present for MMRatio ≥1.8 in the subgroup with core ≥70 ml. Parenchymal hemorrhage on follow-up imaging was more frequent in the MT + BMM group regardless of the MMRatio. | INTERPRETATION: Perfusion imaging may help select which patients with large core should be considered for MT. Randomized studies are warranted. ANN NEUROL 2021.